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Львівський національний медичний університет

Головна / University / Departments / Medical faculty No.2 / Department of histology, cytology and embryology

Department of histology, cytology and embryology

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69 Pekarska str., Lviv, 79010, Ukraine

Phone 38 (032)  2769373, 2786444

Fax 38 (032) 2755947



Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor Alexander Lutsyk



  • Associate chairperson for research: Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor Antonina Yashchenko  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it
  • Associate chairperson for academic affairs: Associate Professor Olha Nakonechna, This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it
  • Academic staff: A.D.Lutsyk – MD, DSci, Professor, A.M.Yashchenko – DSci, Professor, O.V.Nakonechna – PhD, Associate Professor, V.V.Dudok – MD, PhD, Associate Professor, O.V.Smolkova – MD, PhD, Associate Professor, O.P.Yelisyeyeva – PhD, Associate Professor, R.O.Bilyi – PhD, Associate Professor, O.R.Dzhura – PhD, Associate Professor, I.V.Chelpanova – MD, PhD, Associate Professor, V.I.Kovalyshyn – PhD, Senior Researcher, N.O.Ambarova – MD, PhD, Assistant Professor, L.V.Pankevych – MD, PhD, Assistant Professor,  E.A.Sogomonyan – MD, PhD, Assistant Professor, M.M.Lutsyk – PhD, Assistant Professor, C.I.Strus – Assistant Professor


Microscopic investigations were initiated at the Department of Anatomy, Medical Faculty of Lviv (then Lemberg) University by Professor Joseph Berres, who headed the same Department in 1820-1832. He was first to introduce microscopic technique while studying human body microanatomy – thereafter Histology and Embryology. Professor Berres summarized his microscopic observation in a textbook entitled «Microscopic anatomy of the human body» (Anatomie der mikroskopischen Gebilde des menschlichen Korpers) with original illustrations. Histological studies of Professor Berres were continued by his successors – chairmen of Anatomical Department – Professors August Voigt (1850-1854), Julius Planner (1855-1863), and Ernst Rektorzhyk (1863-1874). Professor Planner was first to discover liquid crystals (1861) – a phenomenon, that 150 years later found wide application in technology, in particular, manufacturing of computer monitors, TV screens, lasers on liquid crystals, etc.

A new phase in the history of histology and embryology at Lviv University was launched in 1896, when at the Anatomical Department on the initiative of its chairman Professor Henryk Kadyi, was established histological laboratory. Soon afterwards (1897) a separate Department of Histology and Embryology was opened. For the next 40 years (1897-1937) it was headed by world-renowned histologist Professor Wladyslaw Szymonowicz. The most significant achievement of Professor W.Szymonowicz was his famous «Textbook of Histology and Microanatomy with particular emphasis on the structure of the human body and microscopic techniques» (Lehrbuch der Histologie und der mikroskopischen Anatomie mit besonderer Berucksichtigung des menschlichen Korpers inschliesslich der mikroskopischen Technik, 1901). During 1902-1930 this same book was published 11 times more in English, German, Spanish, Italian, and Polish languages, considered to be one of the best textbooks in histology at the time. Research interests of Professor W.Szymonowicz included of adrenal glands histophysiology, microanatomy of dentin and osseous tissue, sensory nerve endings of skin etc.

During 1937-1943 Histology and Embryology Department was headed by Boleslaw Jalowy, disciple of Professor W.Szymonowicz. He studied histophysiology, embryogenesis and regeneration of nerve endings, effect of female sex hormones on blood clotting, invented a special technique for connective tissue staining. After the tragic death of Professor B.Jalowy in 1943, for a brief time the Department was headed by Fedir Muchiy (1943-44), Juljan Kochanowski (1944-45), Yuriy Polonskiy (1945-46), Mariya Efremova (1946-47).

From 1947 to 1963 the Department was headed by Andrey Dyban, the graduate of Kyiv Medical Institute. Scientific activities during this period were directed towards the studies of normal and pathological embryogenesis, as well on the histophysiology of endocrine system. Professor A.Dyban proposed the method of differential detection of pituitary gland basophylocytes, published two books on the pathology of early stages in human embryogenesis. During 1964-1988 the Department was headed by Professor Evdokiya Detiuk. Her research was focused on the experimental studies of maternal organism thyroid pathology influences on reproductive function, embryonic and postnatal offsprings development. Professor E.Detiuk supervised and guided 3 DSci, and 20 PhD programmes and theses.

In 1988, as well as during academic year 1994-95, the Department headed Antonina Ivanova-Sogomonyan. She was the author of the first register of Ukrainian histological terminology (1980), co-authored a first Ukrainian textbook of histology (1992), a register of Ukrainian embryological terms (1993), as well as «Histological explanatory dictionary» (1994). Since 1989 the Department is headed by Alexander Lutsyk, whose reserch interests are directed towards the application of lectins with different specificities for the histochemical investigation of tissue carbohydrates under physiological and pathological conditions. As a second Professor of the Department works Antonina Yashchenko. So far she co-authored «Atlas of oral cavity microanatomy» (1999), guided 4 PhD theses, provided consulting for a large scale of PhD and DSci applicants from different regions of Ukraine, is supervisor of a students scientific circle.


Department is teaching fundamentals of histology and embryology for general medicine and dentistry students. The learning curriculum includes: molecular biology of the cell, microscopic and submicroscopic arrangement and histophysiology of tissues, organs and organ systems of  human body, as well as the basics of early human development. Annually staff of the Department provides lectures and academic instructions for about 600 MD students (including over 100 foreigners), and for 240 DDS students (including 40 foreigners). Foreign students are taught in three languages – English, Ukrainian, and Russian.

The most important educational publication was the first Ukrainian textbook «Human Histology» (authors A.D.Lutsyk, A.Y.Ivanova, and K.S.Kabak, 1992). Since then this book run into four re-editions (1993, 2003, 2010, 2013), and was awarded the National Prize of Ukraine (1994). These same authors also published «Histological explanatory dictionary» (1994). To enhance the professional level of dentistry students and dental doctors A.M.Yashchenko with co-authors published «Atlas of oral cavity microanatomy» (1999).

A.D.Lutsyk, A.Y.Ivanova, V.V.Dudok in collaboration with professor Yu.B.Chaykovsky accomplished translation and adaptation into Ukrainian language register of International histological  (1980, 1993, 2001, 2010), and embryological (1993) terms. During 1998-2012 the Departmental staff managed translation into Ukrainian of several internationally renowned medical books – namely, «Langman’s Medical Embryology» after T.Sadler (2001), «Atlas of Human Anatomy» by F.Netter (2004, 2009), «Human Physiology» by W.Ganong (2002), «Clinical Biochemistry» by S.Angelski and co-authors (1998, 2000), «Atlas of Human Body» after T.Smith (2000, 2002, 2003), «Dorland’s Illustrated Medical Dictionary» (2003, 2007).

Currently the staff of the Department is working on the computerization of lab guides and instructions for student’s self assistance and control. First step in this direction is on-line access to teaching materials to monitor learning of histological preparations and micrographs in cytology and general histology – Module 1 (2011), and for special histology of organ systems – Module 2 (2012). Associate professor O.V.Nakonechna maintained computerized collection of micrographs and illustrations for the course of cytology, histology and embryology, that is an electronic attachment to the «Human histology» textbook.


The research theme of the Department for years 2012-2016 is entitled «Lectino- and immuno- histochemical analysis of carbohydrate determinants of normal and pathologically changed cells and tissues». This topic is a continuation of research directories for 25 previous  years. These included lectin histochemistry investigations of human and  animal tissues under physiological and pathological conditions: namely, carbohydrate remodeling of cartilage and bone in hyperparathyroidism; of kidney, liver and pancreas under streptozotocin-induced diabetes;  of ovaries, endometrium, lungs, skin, stomach, and of adrenal gland under experimental hypothyroidism.

It has been expanded the existing knowledge on lectin applicability as the research tools for selective labeling of distinct cell types, of closely related cell populations depending on organ specificity, degree of differentiation/maturation, secretory cycle phase etc.; to characterize the processes of cellular glycosylation under physiological and pathological conditions; relationship of genetic alterations and exposure of lectin receptor sites; use of lectins for the addressed grug delivery.

For the above purposes «Lectinotest laboratory» was organized in the Department in 1987, and since then it carries out responsibilities for the purification, biochemical analysis and carbohydrate specificity characterization of traditional and new lectin preparations for further application in histochemistry and cell biology. Priority findings in lectin research were summarized in three monographs – «Lectins» (authors M.D.Lutsyk, Ye.M.Panasyuk, A.D.Lutsyk, 1981); «Lectins in histochemistry» (after A.D.Lutsyk, Ye.S.Detiuk, M.D.Lutsyk, 1989); «Lectins and their resources» (by V.O.Antonyuk, 2005). During 10 passed years (2003-2012) as much as 3 DSci theses (O.Yu.Shapovalova - 2003; A.M.Yashchenko - 2004; V.O.Antonyuk - 2007), and 6 PhD theses (B.R.Stoyka - 2005; O.R.Dzhura - 2007; N.O.Ambarova - 2010; L.V.Pankevych - 2010; Ye.A.Sogomonyan - 2011; M.M.Lutsyk - 2011) were completed and conferred in the Department (during 60 years – 1953-2012 – more than 40 PhD and DSci Theses were completed in total). During this period more than 200  articles were published scientific journals.

Alongside with lectin histochemistry investigations, Associate Professor OlhaYeliseyeva studies the regulatory mechanisms on free radical and oxygen homeostasis, the relationship between aerobic metabolism and heart rate variability during the formation of adaptive responses, integral parameters and non-invasive methods for individual evaluation of functional metabolic reserve output, depth of oxidative stress, responses and reactions of the organism to stimulatory effects (including additives of amaranth seeds oil and effects of interval hypoxia).

Recently the staff of the Department was involved in the implementation of international grant projects, namely: (1) Associate Professor R.O.Bilyy - Grant project «Changes in cell membrane glycoproteins in cell death: relationship to autoimmune reactions» (2009-2011); (2) Associate Professor O.P.Yelisyeyeva - EU Grant COST B35 «Disorders associated with lipid peroxidation» (2006-2010); (3) Professor A.D.Lutsyk – Austro-Ukrainian Grant project «On the history of medical and pharmaceutical education in Lviv: Austrian period» (2009-2010). The outcome of the latter activities was the monographic publication – a book «Professors of Danylo Halytskyi Lviv National Medical University» (authors B.S.Zimenkovsky, M.R.Gzhegotsky, A.D.Lutsyk, 2006, 2009), as well as the series of biobibliographical sketches on the Professors of Lviv Medical University of different historical periods of its existence, including more then 40 publications in «Encyclopedia of Modern Ukraine», «Lviv Encyclopedia», «Lviv University Encyclopedia», journal articles.

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